Wednesday, May 19, 2010

Are there something out there !!!


Are there something out there? Or are we the only living creature in the Universe. So far scientists have found no evidence of alien life forms.

Eight scientific facts about aliens

1) Scientists do not know whether there are any aliens but they have been searching for life on other planets for thousands of years. From the beginning ideas about aliens were linked to religious myths, and people regarded gods, angels, spirits and demons as real. Democritus, a Greek philosopher, argued that all forms of matter consists of atoms these tiny particle could be linked together to form plants and animals not only on Earth but also on other planets.

2) Today, scientists are searching for life on other planets by trying to catch radio signals. In 1960, Francis Drake, steered a giant 26-metre dish towards a star Epsilon Eridani, and the antenna picked up an artificial signal. The signal turned out to be produced by secret military radar but this was the beginning of the search for radio sent by aliens.

The word SETI stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, and it is an international research programme that seeks evidence of life in the universe.

3) The chance of finding other life is calculated by using the Drake equation. There are billions of Earth-like planets and many people believe that there are many planets which have intelligent life. Scientists do not know how likely it is that life emerges, and it is possible that life on Earth is unique. It is also difficult to know how likely it is that intelligent life develops.

In order for aliens to send a signal they have to develop some sort of intelligence. Scientists believe that it is unlikely to find intelligent life in our solar system. But there might be life on other planets in our solar systems, and this life might look completely different from life on Earth.

4) After years of searching for a radio signal, no message from another planet has been received. Scientists have found planets beyond our solar system, and many scientists believe that given a suitable environment and sufficient time, it is possible that life will develop on other planets.

Humans have sent messages to try to contact aliens. Photos, drawings, and text messages have been sent at the planet Gleise. This active SETI is also called METI (Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence) and some scientists have criticised this active way of looking for other life since the location of Earth could be revealed to aliens.

The physicist Stephen Hawking believes that aliens might be unfriendly and that we should be careful with sending out messages. He believes that some aliens might be like nomad and that they are living on ships and looking for refuelling stations.

Many scientists have critics Hawking for using human behaviour to predict what aliens are like. And some scientists assume that if there is intelligent life out there it is wise and friendly but of course no one knows.

The Sorcerers

Some conspiracy theorists question not "the facts" so much as reason itself. James Shelby Downard is one of those mad geniuses with a talent for making the most improbable, impossible, ludicrous, and laughable speculations appear almost plausible. A self-described student of the "science of symbolism," Downard peels away the rational veneer of history and exposes an abyss of logic-defying synchronicities.

Downard dwells upon a confluence of the familiar and the esoteric that, to him, forms a portrait of political conspiracy the purpose of which is not power or money, but alchemy - the mystical science of transformation. By breaking apart and rejoining elements, it was long ago supposed, alchemy could effect most any miracle (for example, changing base metal into gold).

From ancient times through the Enlightenment, science and magic were one and the same. As far as Downard's concerned, the era when science was indistinguishable from sorcery never ended. The Age of Reason and its industrial, postmodern antecedents are facades obscuring the dream world of primeval urges that surfaces only in sleep.

Per Downard, the plotters are Freemasonic alchemists alchemists scheming for sovereignty over the realm of uncontrollable impulse. The relatively tame domains of politics, economics, and ideology are mere means to that end.

"Do not be lulled into believing," warns Downard, "that just because the deadening American city of dreadful night is so utterly devoid of mystery, so thoroughly flat-footed, sterile, and infantile, so burdened with the illusory gloss of baseball-hot-dogs-apple-pie-and-Chevrolet, that it exists outside the psycho-sexual domain. The eternal pagan psychodrama is escalated under these modern conditions precisely because sorcery is not what 'twentieth-century man' can accept as real."

Drawing up a brief primer of Downardism seems as impossible task, though not quite as daunting as reading Downard's own essays, which have been set forth for public consumption largely through the good offices of publisher Adam Parfrey, whole small, outre firm, Feral House, has anthologized Downard's essays in a few collections of conspiratorial material. We can do no more than scratch the surface in this forum.

That Master plan necessitates execution of three alchemical rites: the creation and destruction of primordial matter; the killing of the king; and the "making manifest of all that is hidden."

Shakespeare's Macbeth is a "killing of the king" drama. MacBeth, who killed his king in accordance with a witches' (alchemists') plot and was himself later killed, is part of the same schemata.

The latter-day reenactment of the MacBeth ritual, says Downard, was the assassination of JFK in Dealey Plaza, site of the first Masonic temple in Dallas and a spot loaded with "trinity" symbolism. THREE is, for those not versed in such matters, the most magic of all magic numbers. Downard's observations include:

Dallas is located just south of the 33 degree of latitude. The 33rd degree is Freemasonry's highest rank.

Kennedy's motorcade was rolling toward the "Triple Underpass" when he was slain by, according to some analysts, three gunmen. Three tramps were arrested right after the murder. Hiram Abiff, architect of Solomon's Temple and mythic progenitor of Freemasonry was murdered according to Masonic legend by three "unworthy craftsmen."

The MacBeth clan of Scotland had many variations of the family name. One was MacBaine, or Baines. Kennedy's successor was Lyndon Baines Johnson, a Freemason.

Dea in Latin means goddess. Ley in Spanish can refer to law or rule. Dealey Plaza was "goddess-rule" plaza.

Blamed for the assassination was a man named Oz, (Oswald) explained by Downard as "a Hebrew term denoting strength." Divine strength is integral to the King-Killing rite.

Oz was killed by Ruby, just as the ruby slippers freed Dorothy from the land of Oz in The Wizard of Oz, which writes Downard, "one may deride as a fairy tale but which nevertheless symbolizes the immense power of 'ruby light,' otherwise known as the laser."

Dealey Plaza is near the Trinity River, which, before the introduction of flood control measures, submerged the place regularly. Dealey Plaza therefore symbolized both the trident and its bearer, the water-god Neptune.

"To this trident-Neptune site," writes Downard, "came the 'Queen of Love and Beauty' and her spouse, the scapegoat, in the Killing of the King rite, the 'Ceannaideach' (Gaelic word for Ugly Head or Wounded Head). In Scotland, the Kennedy coat of arms and iconography is full of folklore. Their plant badge is an oak and their crest has a dolphin on it. Now what could be more coincidental than for JFK to get shot in the head near the oak tree at Dealey Plaza. Do you call that a coincidence?" (For those of you still too puzzled by the whole Wizard of Oz thing to get that last bit: the "Queen" is Jackie and "Ceannaideach" is the Gaelic form of Kennedy.)

An earlier "trinity site," in New Mexico, was the location of the first atomic bomb explosion. Chaos and synergy - breaking apart and joining together - are the first principles of alchemy. The atomic bomb broke apart the positive and negative (male and female) elements that compose primordial matter. Physicists refer to this fiendish trickery as "nuclear fission."

The New Mexico "Trinity" sits on the 33rd degree latitude line.

The Kennedy assassination's true significance was concealed by the Warren Commission headed by Freemason Earl Warren with Freemason Gerald Ford as its public spokesman. The commission drew its information from the FBI, headed by Freemason J. Edgar Hoover, and the CIA, which transmitted information through its former director, Freemson Allen Dulles, who sat on the commission.

A decade later, Ford, when president himself, was the target of an attempted assassination in front of the St. Francis Hotel, location opposite Mason Street in the City of St. Francis, San Francisco. Members of the Freemasonic "Hell Fire Club," eighteenth-century London site of many a sex orgy involving such luminaries as Freemason Benjamin Franklin, called themselves "Friars of St. Francis."

The St. Francis Hotel was also the site of sex orgies. On its premises occurred the rape-murder of Verginia Rappe by silent film comic Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle. Virginia Rappe's name is a variation on "virgin rape." The rape of a virgin is an important alchemical sex-magic rite.

The serpent is a Masonic symbol of king-killing. The Symbionese Liberation Army, which kidnapped San Francisco newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst, pictured a serpent on its emblem.

The name Symbionese means "joined together."

Patricia Hearst's grandfather, newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, built a vast estate called San Simeon (St. Simon) on La Cuest Encandata, The Enchanted Hill. On the estate is a "pool of Neptune" with a statue of Venus, the "queen of love and beauty." The Hearst family joined together the San Francisco Chronicle and Examiner.

As mentioned previously, I am able only to touch the most superficial aspects of the alchemical conspiracy made manifest in the message of James Shelby Downard. I have ignored his hint that Marilyn Monroe's death was Freemasonically inspired, in part because "when she was mortal she was subjected to sexual debauchery, as the innocent are in sorcery rites."

Nor have we covered Downard's argument that the advertising war "between Avis and Hertz car rental corporations involves fertility symbolism."

Avis and Hertz? For God's sake, let us hope he's misguided.

Was the First Moonlanding Fake?


On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong planted his left foot in the lunar dust and became the first human to walk on the moon. Unfortunately, that stellar moment in history may have been marred by one not-insignificant detail: If inquiring author Bill Kaysing has it right, Amstrong made his giant leap for mankind not 240,000 miles above the Earth in the barren Sea of Tranquillity, but a mere 90 miles north of lusty Las Vegas on a top-secret movie soundstage. Yes, as Kaysing tells it, the nation was gulled into believe that Armstrong and Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr., were gamboling through a bona fide lunar landscape, when in fact the two "actors" were hamming it up in a sinister government production that qualifies as the greatest hoax of all time.

Sheer lunacy, you say? Not according to the millions of skeptics who watched the spectacle of men walking on the moon in disbelief. And not according to Kaysing, who outlined his highly evolved theory in a self-published expose, We Never Went to the Moon. A former technical writer for Rockwell International (which contributed to the alleged "moon missions"), Kaysing claims no direct knowledge of NASA's shenanigans. Rather, his certainty derives from the epistemological alignment of a "hunch," photographic "proof," and a gnawing feeling that "the government is a specialist in hoaxing the public."

If his thesis is, well, somewhat weightless in the hard evidence department, Kaysing more than compensates with copious enthusiasm. "America's 30 Billion Dollar Swindle!" he declares, played itself out over the course of five more sham moon landings and involved "well-faked photographs," phony moon rocks, and "programmed astronauts" - not to mention "the help of father-figure [Walter] Cronkite as the journalistic goat."

First and foremost, Kaysing has questions - questions that NASA and the former astronauts evade like a grifter dodges the "heat";

In photographs of the lunar sky, why are no stars visible, and why are the
astronauts "extremely evasive regarding stars"? With no blocking atmosphere,
the celestial tableau would have been "the most magnificent available to mortal
man," Kaysing writes. The answer, he posits, is that NASA's set decorators knew
they couldn't dupe professional astronomers with an ersatz starry backdrop.

If the moon's surface was powdery enough for deep footprints, why didn't the
lunar lander's rocket thruster dig a gaping crater? And why in photographs is
there no moon dust on the lander's legs?

If the moon was proven to be "sterile" after the first Apollo mission, why were
astronauts in later missions held in quarantine so long? Kaysing submits that they
needed quality time in an airstream trailer to "1) eliminate guilt feelings; 2) study
and memorize moon data; and 3) practice responding to questions."

"Why did so many astronauts end up as executives in very large corporations?"

Kaysing provides answers to most of the questions, including the most obvious - why would NASA go to the trouble of faking the Apollo moon shots? It seems the space agency launched its elaborate ruse when, after years of technological screw-ups and bureaucratic snafus, NASA realized it would never put a man on the moon by the close of the 1960s.

To avoid international embarrassment, NASA and the military's stealth apparatus, the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), established a top-secret operation that Kaysing calls the Apollo Simulation Project (ASP). For their secret base of operations, the cold-blooded ASP team chose a site in Nevada adjacent to land used by the Atomic Energy Commission in nuclear bomb testing - the perfect deterrent to the overly curious. Of course, ASP's secret base also had the advantage of being less than an hour's drive from "a twenty-four-hour-a-day, seven-days-a-week, anything-goes resort boasting more than thirty large casinos." According to Kaysing, who presents his case in semiomniscient fashion, ASP quite naturally hooked up with the Vegas "Cosa Nostra," which patriotically provided the space program with expert "services," apparently in the lethal splashdown department, so to speak.

In its desert redoubt, ASP excavated an underground cavern and installed "a complete set of the moon." (Some word-of-mouth versions of the moon scam theory place the phony set in Arizona or New Mexico.) In fact - and in the absence of traditional journalistic sourcing, we must take Kaysing at his word on most "facts" - none other than film director Stanley Kubrick assisted in the plot, generously using his 2001: A Space Odyssey to develop the Hollywood special effects required to foist the NASA hoax on an unsuspecting public. (It makes you wonder what The Shining was all about.)

According to Kaysing, ASP's modus operandi went something like this:

An empty Saturn V rocket lifts off in Florida - in full public view, thereby lending
the Apollo con a patina of authenticity. However, once out of sight, the ghost
rocket ditches into the South Polar Sea.

The "astronauts" are jetted to ASP's Nevada complex where the enjoy "every
conceivable luxury, including a few of the shapeliest showgirls from Las Vegas,
cleared for secret, of course." When Armstrong and his fellow playboy thespians
aren't earning membership in the 240,000 Mile High Club, so to speak, they "are
free to wander about and play the slots" and "sample the twenty-four-hour buffet
from the Dunes" hotel. (In this moral vacuum, the well-informed Kaysing
reports, one of the astronauts may have "socked an ASP official in a dispute over
a showgirl named Peachy Keen."

When the curtain finally rises, the special -effects team, TV cameramen, and
"ASP moon walk director" create a near-seamless piece of performance art, as
Armstrong recites his scripted "one-small-step" line. Every aspect of the phony
video feed is "meticulously" choreographed, down to the "boo-boos," jokes, "and
seeming improvisations of the astronauts." Meanwhile, NASA cooks up
counterfeit "moon rocks," the purported hard evidence of the journey, in a high-
tech ceramics kiln.

In time for their triumphal return to Earth, the astronauts are coaxed away from
the Vegas vixens and whisked to a hidden air base south of the Hawaiian Islands
(the "Tauramoto Archipelago," Kaysing obligingly specifies). There they are
sealed inside a dummy space capsule and dropped from a C5-a transport plane
into the roiling seas.

If the plot sounds a lot like the 1979 film Capricorn One, which dramatized a similar cabal involving a bogus mission to Mars, it is because, according to Kaysing, Hollywood borrowed the idea from the first edition of his book.

Like the O.J. Simpson-Telly Savalas film (or any conspiracy hypothesis worth its salt), Kaying's theory has its martyrs, a whole cemetery full. There's Tom Baron, the aerospace technician who complained to Congress about dangerous corner-cutting in the Apollo program - and died in a train accident "just four days after he testified." There are also the three astronauts - including Gus "the Right Stuff" Grissom - who died on the launchpad in a 1967 "mishap" when fire swept through their capsule. Grisson had groused publicly about Apollo's safety troubles, leading Kaysing to postulate that perhaps the DIA arranged a little "accident" to silence the whistle-blower and impress other loud-mouth fly-boys.

And, as in many a postulated conspiracy, this one involves brainwashing. Kaysing suggests that the astronauts might have been subjected to state-of-the-art mind-control techniques and turned into "Manchurian Candidates," thus ensuring their obedient participation in the hoax. This, he postulates, might explain their subsequent reclusiveness and, in some cases, "severe mental problems."

What are they trying to hide, anyway? Kaysing wonders. Neil Armstrong "will not speak on the phone to me," Kaysing complains in his book. Buzz Aldrin apparently won't appear on talk shows alongside Apollo's intractable critic. Despite their seeming aloofness, however, the space jockeys may in fact be very interested in the California researcher's doings: Kaysing intimates darkly that agents of Armstrong keep close tabs on his ongoing quest to defrock Apolloscam.

Alas, NASA's secrets remain as impenetrable as any Vegas vault. Barring unforeseen revelations, hectoring ex-astronauts may be the only way for Kaysing to get to the bottom of the conundrum. Like David flinging tiny Earth rocks at a space-suited Goliath, the intrepid investigator has issued a standing challenge: "I am willing," Kaysing pledges, "to debate any or all of the astronauts at any time on live TV or in person anywhere."

So far the Manchurian Spacemen have declined to take that one small step.

Saturday, May 1, 2010

Tachyons




                There was a young lady named Bright,
Whose speed was far faster than light.
She went out one day,
In a relative way,
And returned the previous night!

-Reginald Buller

It is a well known fact that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. At best, a massless particle travels at the speed of light. But is this really true? In 1962, Bilaniuk, Deshpande, and Sudarshan, Am. J. Phys. 30, 718 (1962), said "no". A very readable paper is Bilaniuk and Sudarshan, Phys. Today 22,43 (1969). I give here a brief overview.

Draw a graph, with momentum (p) on the x-axis, and energy (E) on the y-axis. Then draw the "light cone", two lines with the equations E = +/- p. This divides our 1+1 dimensional space-time into two regions. Above and below are the "timelike" quadrants, and to the left and right are the "spacelike" quadrants.

Now the fundamental fact of relativity is that E2 - p2 = m2. (Let's take c=1 for the rest of the discussion.) For any non-zero value of m (mass), this is a hyperbola with branches in the timelike regions. It passes through the point (p,E) = (0,m), where the particle is at rest. Any particle with mass m is constrained to move on the upper branch of this hyperbola. (Otherwise, it is "off-shell", a term you hear in association with virtual particles - but that's another topic.) For massless particles, E2 = p2, and the particle moves on the light-cone.

These two cases are given the names tardyon (or bradyon in more modern usage) and luxon, for "slow particle" and "light particle". Tachyon is the name given to the supposed "fast particle" which would move with v>c. (Tachyons were first introduced into physics by Gerald Feinberg, in his seminal paper "On the possibility of faster-than-light particles" [Phys.Rev. v.159, pp.1089--1105 (1967)]).

Now another familiar relativistic equation is E = m*[1-(v/c)2]-1/2. Tachyons (if they exist) have v > c. This means that E is imaginary! Well, what if we take the rest mass m, and take it to be imaginary? Then E is negative real, and E2 - p2 = m2 <>2 - E2 = M2, where M is real. This is a hyperbola with branches in the spacelike region of spacetime. The energy and momentum of a tachyon must satisfy this relation.

You can now deduce many interesting properties of tachyons. For example, they accelerate (p goes up) if they lose energy (E goes down). Furthermore, a zero-energy tachyon is "transcendent", or infinitely fast. This has profound consequences. For example, let's say that there were electrically charged tachyons. Since they would move faster than the speed of light in the vacuum, they should produce Cherenkov radiation. This would lower their energy, causing them to accelerate more! In other words, charged tachyons would probably lead to a runaway reaction releasing an arbitrarily large amount of energy. This suggests that coming up with a sensible theory of anything except free (noninteracting) tachyons is likely to be difficult. Heuristically, the problem is that we can get spontaneous creation of tachyon-antitachyon pairs, then do a runaway reaction, making the vacuum unstable. To treat this precisely requires quantum field theory, which gets complicated. It is not easy to summarize results here. However, one reasonably modern reference is Tachyons, Monopoles, and Related Topics, E. Recami, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978).

However, tachyons are not entirely invisible. You can imagine that you might produce them in some exotic nuclear reaction. If they are charged, you could "see" them by detecting the Cherenkov light they produce as they speed away faster and faster. Such experiments have been done. So far, no tachyons have been found. Even neutral tachyons can scatter off normal matter with experimentally observable consequences. Again, no such tachyons have been found.

How about using tachyons to transmit information faster than the speed of light, in violation of Special Relativity? It's worth noting that when one considers the relativistic quantum mechanics of tachyons, the question of whether they "really" go faster than the speed of light becomes much more touchy! In this framework, tachyons are waves that satisfy a wave equation. Let's treat free tachyons of spin zero, for simplicity. We'll set c = 1 to keep things less messy. The wavefunction of a single such tachyon can be expected to satisfy the usual equation for spin-zero particles, the Klein-Gordon equation:

                (BOX + m2)phi = 0

where BOX is the D'Alembertian, which in 3+1 dimensions is just

                BOX = (d/dt)2 - (d/dx)2 - (d/dy)2 - (d/dz)2.

The difference with tachyons is that m2 is negative, and m is imaginary.

To simplify the math a bit, let's work in 1+1 dimensions, with co-ordinates x and t, so that

                BOX = (d/dt)2 - (d/dx)2

Everything we'll say generalizes to the real-world 3+1-dimensional case. Now - regardless of m, any solution is a linear combination, or superposition, of solutions of the form

                phi(t,x) = exp(-iEt + ipx)

where E2 - p2 = m2. When m2 is negative there are two essentially different cases. Either |p| >= |E|, in which case E is real and we get solutions that look like waves whose crests move along at the rate |p|/|E| >= 1, i.e., no slower than the speed of light. Or |p| < |E|, in which case E is imaginary and we get solutions that look waves that amplify exponentially as time passes!

We can decide as we please whether or not we want to consider the second sort of solutions. They seem weird, but then the whole business is weird, after all.

1) If we do permit the second sort of solution, we can solve the Klein-Gordon equation with any reasonable initial data - that is, any reasonable values of phi and its first time derivative at t = 0. (For the precise definition of "reasonable", consult your local mathematician.) This is typical of wave equations. And, also typical of wave equations, we can prove the following thing: If the solution phi and its time derivative are zero outside the interval [-L,L] when t = 0, they will be zero outside the interval [-L-|t|, L+|t|] at any time t. In other words, localized disturbances do not spread with speed faster than the speed of light! This seems to go against our notion that tachyons move faster than the speed of light, but it's a mathematical fact, known as "unit propagation velocity".

2) If we don't permit the second sort of solution, we can't solve the Klein-Gordon equation for all reasonable initial data, but only for initial data whose Fourier transforms vanish in the interval [-|m|,|m|]. By the Paley-Wiener theorem this has an odd consequence: it becomes impossible to solve the equation for initial data that vanish outside some interval [-L,L]! In other words, we can no longer "localize" our tachyon in any bounded region in the first place, so it becomes impossible to decide whether or not there is "unit propagation velocity" in the precise sense of part 1). Of course, the crests of the waves exp(-iEt + ipx) move faster than the speed of light, but these waves were never localized in the first place!

The bottom line is that you can't use tachyons to send information faster than the speed of light from one place to another. Doing so would require creating a message encoded some way in a localized tachyon field, and sending it off at superluminal speed toward the intended receiver. But as we have seen you can't have it both ways: localized tachyon disturbances are subluminal and superluminal disturbances are nonlocal.